The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security

The Kurds vow to defend themselves—alone if necessary—against Syria, Turkey and Russia.

The sound of Turkish artillery breaks the silence of the morning in the village of Umm Kaif, less than 2 miles from Tal Tamr near the Syrian-Turkish border. Despite the proclamation of a cease fire last month, the Turkish army and its Syrian rebel allies are still clashing with the Kurdish-dominated Syrian Democratic Forces, and lately also the regime of Bashar al-Assad. Kurdish mortars return fire a minute or so after the shelling starts.

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